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Genetics study material

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BIOS Instant Notes in GENETICS PDF

Authors : Hugh Fletcher  & Ivor Hickey  

BIOS Instant Notes in Genetics is the perfect NOTES / BOOK / TEXT for undergraduates  looking for a brief introduction to the topic, or a study guide or a Quick Revision Notes / book to use before exams . This is the latest edition of this book / notes. Each topic begins with a summary of essential facts a perfect revision checklist followed by a description of the topic that focuses on key information, with clear, simple diagrams that are easy to remember are important for students to understand and use in essays and exams. So in this post  we’ll gonna provide you the “BIOS NOTES IN GENETICS” in the  pdf format or you can say soft copy  which is  totally free  you do not  have to pay a single penny  for  it , you can easily access or  download  it here. Literally this BIOS NOTES will help you a lot. Hope you will love it.

》Genetics : Definition 

Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms. Gregor Mendel observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete “units of inheritance”. This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene.

Types of genetics

There are five types of Genetics

1.) Molecular genetics.
2.) Developmental genetics.
3.) Population genetics.
4.) Quantitative genetics.
5.) Phylogenetics

》Study of Genetics

Genetics is the scientific study of genes and heredity—of how certain qualities or traits are passed from parents to offspring as a result of changes in DNA sequence. All of an organism’s genetic material, including its genes and other elements that control the activity of those genes, is its genome. 

A gene is a segment of DNA that contains instructions for building one or more molecules that help the body work. DNA is shaped like a corkscrew-twisted ladder, called a double helix. The two ladder rails are called backbones, and the rungs are pairs of four building blocks (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) called bases. The sequences of these bases provide the instructions for building molecules, most of which are proteins. Researchers estimate that humans have about 20,000 genes.

All of an organism’s genetic material, including its genes and other elements that control the activity of those genes, is its genome. An organism’s entire genome is found in nearly all of its cells. In human, plant, and animal cells, the genome is housed in a structure called the nucleus. The human genome is mostly the same in all people with just small variations.

How are genes inherited ?

Our DNA, including all of our genes, is stored in chromosomes, structures where proteins wind up DNA tightly so that it fits in the nucleus. Humans typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes in our cells. The two chromosomes in each pair contain the same genes, but they may have different versions of those genes because we inherit one chromosome in each pair from our mother and the other from our father. Reproductive cells—eggs and sperm—randomly receive one chromosome from each of the 23 sets instead of both so that a fertilized egg will contain the 23 pairs needed for typical development.

How do genes affect health and disease ?

Changes in genes can prevent the gene from doing its job the way it normally would. Some differences in DNA, for example, can lead to incorrectly formed proteins that can’t perform their functions. Also, genetic variations can influence how people respond to certain medicines or a person’s likelihood of developing a disease. Because parents pass their genes on to their children, some diseases tend to cluster in families, similar to other inherited traits. In most cases, multiple genes are involved. Researchers can use DNA sequencing to identify variations in a person’s genome.

1.) Molecular genetics.
2.) Developmental genetics.
3.) Population genetics.
4.) Quantitative genetics.
5.) Phylogenetics.

Is genetics a good career ?

One can pursue genetics as a career by doing courses like Bachelors, Masters & Doctoral degree. Genetics is a wide field and it has applicability in cancer research, assessing newborn defects, Nutrigenomics, DNA sample analysis, etc. The field of genetics allows you to work in medical as well as scientific research.

Is genetics a difficult course ?

Genetics is one of the hardest classes I ever loved. The material is interesting and relevant.

》Is genetics or cell biology  harder ?

Micro was easy. Cell Bio was slightly more difficult due to it being more detail-oriented, and Genetics was by and large a pain in the butt because of the level of detail and reasoning that was demanded of you.


Section A – Molecular genetics

A1 : DNA structure
A2 : Genes
A3 : The genetic code
A4 : DNA to protein
A5 : DNA mutation
A6 : Mutagens and DNA repair
A7 : Regulation of gene expression
A8 : Epigenetics and chromatin modification

Section B- Genome organization

B1 : Concepts of genomics
B2 : Prokaryote genomes
B3 : Eukaryote genomes
B4 : Chromosomes
B5 : Cell division
B6 : Bacteriophages
B7 : Eukaryotic viruses

Section C- Mechanisms of inheritance

C1 : Basic Mendelian genetics
C2 : More Mendelian genetics
C3 : Meiosis and gametogenesis
C4 : Recombination
C5 : Linkage
C6 : Transfer of genes between bacteria
C7 : Genes in eukaryotic organelles
C8 : Quantitative inheritance C7 C9
C9 : Sex determination
C10 : Sex and inheritance
C11 : Genes in development
C12 : Inbreeding
C13 : Probabilities
C14 : Tests for goodness of fit: chi-square & exact tests

Section D- Population genetics and evolution

D1 : Introduction
D2 : Evolution by natural selection
D3 : Genes in populations: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
D4 : Genetic diversity
D5 : Neo-Darwinian evolution: selection acting on alleles
D6 : Chromosome change in evolution
D7 : Species and speciation
D8 : Polyploidy
D9 : Phylogeography, molecular clocks & phylogenies
D10 : Human evolution

Section E-DNA technology

El : Using sequence specificity to study nucleic acids
E2 : PCR and related technology
E3 : DNA sequencing
E4 : DNA cloning and transfection
E5 : Bioinformatics

Section F- Human genetics

F1 : Genetic diseases
F2 : Genetic screening
F3 : Genes and cancer
F4 : Gene therapy

Section G-Application of genetics

G1 : Genetics in forensic science
G2 : Biotechnology
G3 : Transgenics
G4 : Cloning animals
G5 : Pharmacogenetics
G6 : Ethics

Further reading and useful websites





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》DOWNLOAD BIOS INSTANT NOTES IN GENETICS in the pdf format Also you can grab the Hard Copy from below

Book Name:BIOS Instant Notes in GENETICS
Authors:Hugh Fletcher & Ivor Hickey
Publication:BIOS Instant Notes
Pages:385 Pages
File Size:6.8 MB
File Type:pdf

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